Friday, 14 September 2018

School research leads, piling up the evidence and a reflection on researchED 2018

Last weekend saw the annual education evidence fest – aka-  ResearchED 2018 take place in St John's Wood,  London .  Unfortunately, one of the inevitable disappointments of attending #rED 18 is that you are unable to see all the speakers that you would like to see.  As such, you are often have to do with other people’s summaries of speakers.  So I was particularly pleased to see Schools Week come up with a headline and article ResearchED 2018 Five interesting things we learned.  I was even more pleased when I saw it contained a short summary of Dr Sam Sims presentation on the positive impact of instructional coaching and references to the statistically significant positive effect of instructional coaching being found in 10 out of 15 studies, which was then used to infer that “probably the best-evidenced form of CPD currently known to mankind”.

For me, this then set off a few alarm bells – not about instructional coaching – but rather what can we legitimately infer and claim when a variety of studies find positive and statistically significant results from the implementation of an intervention in a range of different circumstances.  So to help get to grips with this issue,  I am going to lean heavily on the work of Cartwright and Hardie (2012) to explore the relationship between multiple positive results for an intervention and whether that provides evidence that the intervention will work in your setting

Piling on the evidence

Writing about when RCTS have been conducted in a variety of circumstances, Cartwright and Hardie argue these results can help in justifying a claim that an intervention is effective i.e. it worked somewhere or in a range of different somewheres.

However, this does not provide direct evidence that the intervention  will work here in your circumstance or setting. Cartwright and Hardie argue that seeing the same intervention works in a variety of different circumstances, provides some evidence that the intervention can play a causal role in bringing about the desired change.   It may also provide evidence that the support factors for the intervention to work occur in a number of different settings.  On the other hand, an intervention working in lots of places is only relevant to whether an intervention will work here, if certain assumptions are met.  That is, the intervention can play the same causal role here as it did there.  Second, the support factors necessary for the intervention to play a positive causal role here, are available for some individual post implementation.

Cartwright and Hardie go onto explain about how ‘ it works there, there and there, is supposed to provide evidence that it work here.

X plays a cause role in situation 1
X plays a causal role in situation 2
So X plays a causal role everywhere.

For this argument to be robust – it requires research studies/RCTs from a wide range of settings.  In addition, it requires the observations to be generalisable across settings, but also what types of settings that they are likely to be generalisable.  In addition, it is necessary to take into account the causal connections at work, and how they are influenced by the local support factors.

Problems with induction - a sidebar

At this point it worth remembering that all inductive inferences can be wrong.  Kvernbekk (2016) cites the Bertrand Russell who talks about a chicken

Domestic animals expect food when they see the person who usually feeds them. We know that all these rather crude expectations of uniformity are liable to misleading.  The man who has fed the chicken every day throughout its life at last wrings its neck instead, showing that more refined vies as to the uniformity of nature would have been useful to the chicken.

As such we ourselves may be no better positions than the chicken which unexpectedly has its neck wrung.

Nevertheless, Cartwright and Hardie go onto argue that lots of positive RCTS results are a good indicator that the intervention plays the same causal role widely enough for it to potentially ‘carry’ to your setting.  However, this is based on the argument that RCTS are carried out in a sufficiently wide range of settings, with some ideally similar to your own, so that you are able to make some generalisations from there to here.  Cartwright and Hardie then go onto argue ‘that bet is always a little bit dicey.’

Discussion and implications

First, be wary of headlines or soundbites – it’s rarely that straightforward.

Second, if you can, access the original research which was used for the headline and read it for yourself, as there may be a range of nuances which you need to be aware of.

Third, if you thinking  that  instructional coaching  might have potential for your school, you need to spend time thinking about the causal roles and support factors necessary to give the intervention a chance of working.  Indeed, you may want to have a look at this post on causal cakes.

Fourth, as Cartwright and Hardie argue – thinking about causal roles and support factors is difficult and hard work and is difficult to get right every time.  However, it’s not beyond you and other colleagues to have a serious discussion about what’s necessary to put in place in order to give an intervention every chance of success.

Fifth, there is a whole separate discussion about whether statistical significance can tell you anything useful at all - which if you not aware of then it's worth having a look at Gorard et al (2017)

And finally

In next week’s post I will be using the work of Kvernbekk (2016) to explore in more detail the challenge of making what worked there work here.

References

Cartwright, N. and Hardie, J. (2012). Evidence-Based Policy: A Practical Guide to Doing It Better. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

Gorard, S., See, B. and Siddiqui, N. (2017). The Trials of Evidence-Based Education. London. Routledge
Kvernbekk, T. (2016). Evidence-Based Practice in Education: Functions of Evidence and Causal Presuppositions. London. Routledge.





My new book is due out at the end of September 2018

https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/evidence-based-school-leadership-and-management/book257046

41 comments:

  1. We can learn a lot about Why Deep Learning Works by studying the properties of the layer weight matrices of pre-trained neural networks. And, hopefully, by doing this, we can get some insight into what a well trained DNN looks like–even without peaking at the training data.
    MACHINE LEARNING training in chennai

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hacking is very much easy as it is done in the movies we watch, Hackers are really able to do all those stuffs we see, like breaking into a 💻 network to gain access to certain files, to steal those file, monitor users actives, delete files and lots more.

      HOW HACKING REALLY WORKS
      Hacking is easily done by the use of specific programs (Computer virus, Spywares, Trojans, Malwares) to gain access and control over a 💻 and Cell 📲 . These programs are designed to break into computer defense without users even knowing it.

      COPE TECHS SERVICES
      COPE TECHS is an organization you can trust and contact if you need Hacking services. Our aim is not to help individuals who have technological problems and not for Thefts purposes. We guarantee you a 💯 % assurance of our job and for no reason will our work for you be exposed to someone else. Prove of our works in the past will be show to you but please note that the individuals we did them for won’t be disclosed to you.

      HACKING SERVICE WE CAN OFFER YOU
      There is no limits to what we can do for you but we have a restriction in things we can do. For no reason will we help you in Robbery or Stealing if someone’s else belongings and properties, please put that in mind.
      Here is a list of our Approved services-:
      *Hacking of Phones 📱 or Computer 💻 for the purpose of monitoring Emails📧, Text messages✉️, Phone calls📞, Social Media Chats💝, if suspected your spouse is cheating or doing something you not okay with.
      *Repayments of Debts💵 to Banks and other Loan Companies, Yes with the help of Bitcoin💰 mining we have helped so many individuals repay debts.
      *Changing of University Grades for students🗞, we can help with this because we know how hard studying can be and we all know that without good grades individuals are limited to the kind of job they can secure. and lots more.
      If you don’t seem to find a Service you need feel free to ask us and if it’s not against our rules we will help you with it. Contacts is made only by email this helps us stay safe and untraceable.
      Contact-:
      copetechs@gmail.com

      Delete
    2. ARE YOU A VICTIM OF FALSE HACKERS & BANK LOAN SCAM⁉️

      We have been having recent complains from individuals about how they lost money 💵 to SPAMMERS who call themselves HACKERS or BANK LOAN OFFERS. They are all over the internet sharing false testimonies. Please do not fall for their lies for this is just a way to LURE you to them.

      They say lies in the likes of such-:
      ▪️Bitcoin Auctioning ▪️Western Union Hack
      ▪️Blank Credit Card ▪️Clearing Criminal Records
      ▪️Loan Offers. ▪️Bank Account Loading
      ▪️Changing University Grades & so on.
      These are all lies and you shouldn’t fall for them.

      🏵GLOBAL PLUGGERS🏵 is here to help you Recover all your Money 💵 that you have been Ripped of.
      WHO ARE GLOBAL PLUGGERS⁉️
      We are a group of Computer💻 Experts who are memebers of the “HACKERONE” Forum. We have dedicated ourselves to help Victims of these SCAM(s) recover all the Money that has been taken falsely from them.

      If you have been a victim of thes Thieves, then you need to contact us as soon as possible so you can get your money back.
      Email-: globalpluggers@gmail.com
      No. +1 (808) 600 0773 ( Number also available on WhatsApp)

      Note:
      Please know that we do not charge you for Fund Recovery Service, Our Funds Recovery Service is to help and so it’s Free.

      We also provide Legit Hacking Services such as-:
      🔸Phone Hacking/Cloning
      🔸Email Hacking & Password Recovery
      🔸Social Media Hacking & Passowrd Recovery
      🔸Deleted Files Recovery 🔸Mobil Tracking
      🔸Virus detection & Elimination.

      Contact-:
      Email globalpluggers@gmail.com
      No. +1 (808) 600 0773 (number also available on WhatsApp)








      Delete
  2. All Online Assignment help is a web portal where students get help in making assignments for all the subjects, with the help of our experts. You will get 100% plagiarism free assignment. Expert’s consultation is also available for students. If they have any query they can contact with our experts anytime.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Very nice post, I just stumbled for your weblog and wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts, as they are highly knowledgeable. Contact us for QuickBooks Support Phone Number and QuickBooks Payroll Support Phone Number. We also offer services for QuickBooks Proadvisor Support.

    ReplyDelete
  4. It is a perfect post for the business people who are worried about building up a decent school work-place and need to Professional Assignment Writing Services work environment stress and turnover. It contains the information I was chasing down and you have moreover cleared up it well.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Wow, amazing weblog structure! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging glance easy. The full glance of your site is magnificent, let alone the content!

    love message for girlfriend romantic

    ReplyDelete
  6. Very nice post, I just stumbled for your weblog and wanted to say that I’ve really enjoyed surfing around your blog posts, as they are highly knowledgeable. Read more QuickBooks Error 3371 and QuickBooks Proadvisor Support.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Blockchain info is trusted by millions of users, here you can withdraw bitcoin from blockchain wallet to paypal account instant US dollars globally euro fiat.
    Withdraw bitcoin form blockchain

    ReplyDelete
  8. We have best SEO experts team to help you in generating adult traffic with fastest way. This is best chance for you to get in touch with us. We are prividing bestest SEO serivces. Visit for more details. Adult Traffic

    ReplyDelete
  9. Appreciate perusing the article above ,truly clarify everything in points of interest the blog is extremely interesting and viable .thank you and good fortunes for the up and coming online journals.
    Tutor Jobs in Delhi | Home Tutors in Delhi

    ReplyDelete
  10. The most remarkable thing about my mother is that for thirty years she served the family nothing but leftovers happy mothers day wishes messages

    ReplyDelete
  11. https://www.netell.net/buy-mobile-balance-with-bitcoins.html Buy Mobile Balance With Bitcoins Funds Online - Fill Phone Fill your phone with credits and money, buy mobile balance with bitcoins funds online more then 1000 supported operators across the glob including yours

    ReplyDelete
  12. Thanks for this Gary - I read this when you first published it and have just re-read it today. Hoping to make a citation in my new book (Sept 2019), so will be in touch if it makes print. Hope you are well, Ross.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Useful information. Good that I visited the post today. I teach research methodology.
    My post on leadership Theories of Leadership

    ReplyDelete
  14. Trusted Bitcoin Exchanger Trusted Crypto Currency Conversion website all type of coins like Ethereum Bitcoins Ripple Litecoin Dogecoin Monero xrp xmr

    ReplyDelete
  15. Are you looking for the best and fastest cryptocurrency conversion website from bitcoin to bank account. We are are for you visit our  5 star feedback and 100% trust flow  website for best services. 

    ReplyDelete

  16. This is really amazing and perfect website to exchange cryptocurrency bitcoin to bank account easily. Do not waste your time and join us, we are providing best crypto exchange or withdraw services in all over the world. Visit for more details.

    ReplyDelete
  17. Dedicatedhosting4u.com offers decent and persistent dedicated servers with fastest communication over the internet. The customers are provided with two choices, one is self-Managed and the other one is Managed hosting.
    https://www.dedicatedhosting4u.com/
    premier dedicated hosting services

    ReplyDelete
  18. The economic landscape of today is not only demanding but it also comes with a lot of pressure.
    Businesses are starting to see that they need to do something different and unique if they want to make an impact and grow.
    Asset Finance And Leasing is a great way for any company to grow.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Our Expert Swimming pool contractors team build and repair pools and other larger water equipment.
    They are responsible not only for the pool itself and the equipment necessary to maintain it, but also for installing safety devices to protect the pools' users.

    ReplyDelete
  20. Bitcoin to paypal is one of the best and fastest way to exchange or transfer digital currency everywhere in the world. So, if you are looking for the best website for bitcoin or any other currency visit our website now because we are number 1 in the world. Visit now for more details.

    ReplyDelete
  21. Get Web Design Services code ninja web development company

    As a content creator, you may not have the required expertise for web designing. Worry not as you can hire web design services online. At code ninja web development company.

    ReplyDelete
  22. Wonderful post!
    Thank you for sharing!!
    regards,
    http://www.creative-dots.com/

    ReplyDelete
  23. We will show work and give you solution to, How to sell bitcoin for USD? and will provide you exchanging facility from bitcoin to paper money.

    ReplyDelete
  24. Nice blog, it's so knowledgeable, informative, and good looking site. I appreciate your hard work. Good job. Thank you for this wonderful sharing with us. Keep Sharing.

    Home Tutor in Lucknow | Home Tuition Services

    ReplyDelete
  25. it is an absolutely wonderful post. Thanks for sharing
    please visit and bet numbers

    ReplyDelete

  26. Good Blog, Thanks for sharing this blog digital business school.HETIC is a one-of-kind Digital Business Program offering a BBA in Digital Business.

    ReplyDelete
  27. Hey all,
    how are you doing.
    I read this amazing article and found that it is actually very good and has information for all.
    Btw do read this aamzing guide on Download TNPSC Group 4 Hall Ticket 2019.
    I hope you will like this information.
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  28. blog If you are employees or other work busy all the time, you have not so much time to spend in the kitchen. Then you can use top quality roti maker that you can make your roti, chapati easily. Roti makers have new high-quality machinery that roti making process is more convenient. It is also time-saving and quickly. We are the number 1 roti maker seller in India who can priority in customer's demand at first. For more details visit our website: https://rotimakerguide.com/

    ReplyDelete
  29. Thanks for the information and if anyone interested in FREE EDUCATION IN EUROPE or for the process for Study in Europe please feel free to visit THE HOPE.

    ReplyDelete
  30. Dearest Esteems,

    We are Offering best Global Financial Service rendered to the general public with maximum satisfaction,maximum risk free. Do not miss this opportunity. Join the most trusted financial institution and secure a legitimate financial empowerment to add meaning to your life/business.

    Contact Dr. James Eric Firm via
    Email: fastloanoffer34@gmail.com
    urgentloanoffer22.blogspot.com/
    Whatsapp +918929509036
    Best Regards,
    Dr. James Eric.
    Executive Investment
    Consultant./Mediator/Facilitator

    ReplyDelete

  31. very interesting. I have to admit that I'm always interested in the IT department. I have the best people on my team, but I don't have cloud native application development . GrapeUp helps me here. They are great! Great specialists work there :)

    ReplyDelete
  32. We provide many forms of ongoing financial education including seminars, webinars, monthly newsletters and self-help guides – all with the aim of helping you make the well informed financial decisions you deserve. Interested in attending one of our scheduled events please click here. We also provide access to a global network of independent financial advisers around the world.Financial Education

    ReplyDelete
  33. Our Best Mahyaar academy Language courses with a variety of everyday life topics as well as learning materials for select companies to suit your needs.
    For successful communication in normal business conditions. Initially recommended.
    Online Conversation Course - Improve your verbal expression, expand your vocabulary and get important feedback on grammar and pronunciation.

    ReplyDelete
  34. TCA, being an online setup, resolves this concern of such aspirants and plays a critical role in saving time, money and energy costs of the aspirants.We are proud to win the trust of hundreds of students with our effectual strategies and powerful mechanism. You can come and join us as TCA Online is surely your gateway to bureaucracy.whatsapp call for
    more info +923133319144


    https://tcaonline.pk/

    Online CSS Academy,

    Online CSS Institute,

    Online CSS Preparation,

    Best CSS Academy,

    Best Online CSS Academy in Pakistan,

    Best CSS Academy in Pakistan,

    Best CSS Academy in Islamabad,

    Best CSS Academy in Lahore,

    Best CSS Academy in Karachi,

    Best CSS Academy in Peshawar,

    GK MCQs

    ReplyDelete
  35. ACP Sheet get Exposed to Environmental Factors but these can be cleaned easily. Go through the blog “A Complete Guide to Cleaning & Maintenance of ACP Sheets.

    ACP Board
    ACP Sheet
    ACP Sheet Price
    Aluminium Composite Panel
    ACP Panel
    ACP Sheets

    ReplyDelete