Given your responsibilities as either a research lead or senior leader within a school, you will be mindful of how to make the most of the relatively scare amount of time that you have available for engaging with research evidence. (Wallace and Wray, 2016) suggests five questions that should act as a your starting point whenever you are reading and summarising research evidence and which will contribute to capabilities to be an evidence-based practitioner. In addition, these five questions can form the basis for producing a written summary of research evidence, which has the benefit that it can easily be shared with colleagues, and may aid their own evidence-based practice. It also has the benefit of you the school-leader, modelling evidence-based practice, and which is an essential components o the leadership strategies necessary to lead the research and evidence-based school. (Brown, 2015)
So what are Wallace and Wray’s five critical questions when reading research.
- Why am I reading this?
- What are the authors trying to achieve in writing this?
- What are the authors claiming that is relevant to my work?
- How convincing are these claims, and why?
- In conclusions, what use can I make of this?
Again, using a template provided by (Wallace and Wray, 2016) a critical synopsis of a text is best illustrated by the development of a worked example.
Author, date, tiles, publication details:
GODFREY, D. 2016. Leadership of schools as research-led organisations in the English educational environment Cultivating a research-engaged school culture. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44, 301-321
Code : 1 return for detailed analysis; (2) an important general text; (3) of minor importance; (4) Not relevant
Why am I reading this?
I am trying to find out more about the conditions necessary for the long-term development and sustainability for the evidence-based school.
What is the author trying to achieve in writing this?
The author is trying to explain the conditions for growth and expansion of research-engaged schools. In doing so, the author is trying to make a contribution to theory-development. At the same time, the author’s article is informed by his own research into the development of a school’s research culture.
What is the author is claiming that is relevant to my work?
The author provides a biological analogy, for understanding the development of the research-engaged school movement. As such, nourishing factors such a systemic connectedness, leadership for knowledge creations, teaching as a research-informed practice, and the school as a learning organisation need to be taken into account. To make the most of the research-informed school requires a long-term and sustainable school improvement strategy.
How convincing are these claims, and why?
Within the conceptual framework used the argument is convincing. However, a particularly narrow view is taken of ‘evidence-based practice’ and the term ‘research-informed practice’ is used instead. As such the nature of ‘evidence-based practice’ is misrepresented, which undermines the quality of the article as a whole. In addition, with the use of a biological analogy, it is surprising that there is no reference to both the decline and ‘death’ of a culture of research culture.
In conclusion, what use can I make of this?
The paper is useful as an overview of the development of research-informed/engaged schools.It also has a number of suggestions for strategies for what a research-engaged school could look like, and how a school’s culture might change over time.
Code 1/2 (1) return for detailed analysis; (2) an important general text;
Nevertheless, each one of the five critical questions is be supported by a number of sub-questions, which will allow you to unpick underlying detail of the main question. (Wallace and Wray, 2016) have provided us with a useful list of questions, which I have amended to ensure a specific focus on the needs to the evidence-based practitioner
1. Why am I reading this?
- Is this reading going to help me gain a better understanding of background or foreground questions?
- Am I still trying to formulate an answerable question?
- Is the reading to assist with making an evidence-based decision or for the purpose of academic study?
- Is this reading about helping me develop my skills evidence-based practitioner?
2.What are the authors trying to achieve in writing this?
The authors may have a range of differing purposes including:
- Suggestions to changes in practice
- Report on their own research activities
- Synthesise and evaluate the work of others.
- Contribute to the development of theory
- Criticising both policy and practice
3. What are the authors claiming that is relevant to my work?
- What is the text actually about and what do the authors say about it?
- How does text the relate to your own interests and problems of practice?
- Is the text directly linked to your problem of practice?
- Is the text indirectly related to your problem of practice?
- Does the text provide an alternative perspective on the problem of practice?
4. How convincing are these claims, and why?
- Are there any underpinning assumptions, which have not been made explicit?
- Are the conclusions of the study warranted?
- Is the evidence used to support an illogical conclusion?
- Does the evidence suggest other conclusions?
5. In conclusion, what use can I make of this?
- Does this research contribute to your understanding of your problem of practice?
- Is the research relevant to your context?
- Is there any evidence to suggest that any ‘intervention’ might work in your school?
- Does the research influence any decisions you need to make?
- Is this research worth sharing with colleagues?
- Should I undertake further reading?
- Should I seek further sources of ‘counter’ evidence, particularly if the research is consistent with own values and experiences?
- How does this research relate to the other three sources of evidence used by an evidence-based practitioner.
Now, this is only a very brief introduction into the process of becoming a critical reader of research evidence. Further guidance on how to develop your skills can be found in (Wallace and Wray, 2016) where they explain further the skills necessary to both develop an in-depth analysis of a text and to engage in critical writing. Further guidance can also be found in (Booth et al., 2016) which examines the craft of research and how to develop your argument.
BOOTH, W. C., COLOB, G., G, WILLIAMS, J. M., J., B. & FITZGERALD, W. T. 2016. The Craft of Research (Fourth Edition), Chicago, The University Of Chicago Press.
BROWN, C. (ed.) 2015. Leading the use of research & evidence in schools: IOE Press.WALLACE, M. & WRAY, A. 2016. Critical reading and writing for postgraduates, Sage.